Abstract
THE ANTIBACTERIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PARTS OF CLEOME RUTIDOSPERMA PLANT

Chidozie Ngozi Endarlyn Ibezim and Kenneth Chinedu Ugoeze*

ABSTRACT

This work examines the antibacterial and the phytochemical properties of the ethanolic extracts of the various plant parts of Cleome rutidosperma (Capparaceae). A weighed amount of the air-dried roots, seeds, stems and leaves of Cleome rutidosperma was macerated and extracted completely with 96% ethanol. A phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried adopting standard methods. Their antibacterial actions against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at different concentrations were determined using the agar well diffusion methods. From the results, the percentage yield of extracts was as follows: seed > leaves > root > stem. Each plant component studied contained steroids, saponins and triterpenoids, though the stem and leave contained a higher amount of saponins. Tannins and reducing sugars were mainly found in the seed and leave. Antibacterial activities against S. pneumonia were noted as follows: root (10.50 mm) = leaves (10.50mm) > seed (9.50mm) > stem (8.50mm). There was no significant susceptibility against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The MIC (at 12.5mg/ml) were: root (7.00mm) = leaves (7.00mm) > seed (6.75 mm) > stem (6.25mm). Since S. pneumoniae is a causative organism of otitis media as well as conjunctivitis, the folkloric use of Cleome rutidosperma in the treatment of these ailments is justifiable. However, a higher antibacterial activity of the plant will be achieved with the whole plant.

Keywords: Cleome rutidosperma, antibacterial, phytochemical, ethanolic extract.


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