Abstract
THE EFFECTS OF AFRICAN WALNUT (Tetracarpidium conophorum) CRUDE ETHANOLIC ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE AND OXIDATIVE STATUS OF MECURY CHLORIDE TREATED WISTAR RATS

Lawal Edoghogho Tracy and *Innih Silvanus Olu

ABSTRACT

Background: Tetracarpidium conophorum commonly referred to as, African walnut has been reported to possess antibacterial activity, anticancer, antidiabetic activities and also boost fertility in male. The influence and mitigating properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum on the cardiovascular system and oxidative status of Wistar rats that were administered mercuric chloride (HgCl2) were investigated. Methods: A total of forty two rats were divided into seven groups; group A received 1ml of distilled water, group B received tween 80 while group C rats were administered 0.5mg/kg of mercuric chloride. Group D were administered 200mg/kg of Tetracarpidium conophorum, group E were administered 200mg/kg Tetracarpidium conophorum and o.5mg/kg mercuric chloride, group F were administered 300mg/kg Tetracarpidium conophorum and 0.5mg/kg mercuric chloride and group G were treated with 300mg/kg Tetracarpidium conophorum only. After 28 days of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed and whole blood (5ml) was collected for hematological analysis. Antioxidants enzymes including, Superoxide (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as, marker of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) were assayed using standard biochemical procedures. Results and Discussion: The heart weight of the group C rats given mercury chloride only demonstrated a significant increase (0.77mg) but declined with a co-administration of 200mg/kg Tetracarpidium conophorum (0.68mg) and further decreased with 300mg/kg administration to 0.62mg. The mean aorta weight of the rats administered mercury chloride only (0.08mg) did not show significant change compared to group A (0.09mg) and group B (0.08mg), but the co-administration of mercury chloride with 200mg/kg Tetracarpidium conophorum resulted in significant increase in aorta weights for the group E (0.13mg). The co-administration of 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg Tetracarpidium conophorum and mercury chloride (group E and F, respectively) led to increases in WBC levels, i.e. 12.50×10-3/μl and 12.80×10-3/μl. The group treated with mercury chloride demonstrated a significant increase in MDA level (7.75 nmole/ml) compared to the control groups; group A (6.71 nmole/ml) and group B (6.33 nmole/ml) but decreased in group E (6.77 nmole/ml). Conclusion: Mercuric chloride caused sever damaging effects to both the myocardium and the aorta, but Tetracarpidium conophorum was able to ameliorate these effects.

Keywords: African walnut; Mercuric chloride; Myocardium; Aorta; Antioxidant enzymes.


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