Abstract
EVALUATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIMICROBIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CHALICES OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA LINN

Almeida P. S., Nascimento C. C. H. C., Nascimento S. F., Gomes M. L., Vasconcelos S. D. D. De, Azevedo L. A. C., Stephens P. R. S., Diré G. F.* and Barreto A. S.

ABSTRACT

Hibiscus sabdariffa L., which belongs to the family Malvaceae, is an important medicinal plant, originally from India, Sudan and Malaysia and popularly known in Brazil like “vinagreira”, “azedinha”, “quiabo azedo”, “caruru-azedo”, “caruru-da-guiné” e “quiabo-de-angola”. The Malvaceae family, according to in vivo, in vitro and clinical tests, presents in its composition polyphenolic compounds and these auxiliaries in metabolic syndrome, obesity, dyslipidemias, and arterial hypertension, among others. The methodology consisted in obtaining an aqueous extract of the dried calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. by traditional infusion method, 400.09 g of vegetal material processed in 2.0 L of distilled water at 80ºC for 1h and later lyophilization. The determination of percentage of total solids and moisture content of dry calyces, preliminary characterization of phytochemicals found in the extract (Mensah & Golomeke, 2015), antioxidant activity by the ABTS method (Re et al., 1999), profile and quantification of anthocyanins by HPLC (Gouvêa et al., 2012) and evaluation of the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and genotoxic activity by disc-diffusion method in nutrient agar against strain BW9091. The plant material used (dry calyces) had a mean value of total solids of 92.21g/ 100g and a mean humidity of 7.79%. The aqueous extract of the hibiscus calyces showed the phytochemicals flavonoids, saponins and coumarins, low antioxidant potential (2560μmol trolox/ 100 g dry basis) when compared to a literature and the presence of the anthocyanins delphinidin (unidentified) and cyanidin-3-glucoside at high concentrations, 0.524 mg/ mL and 0.225mg/ mL respectively. On the antibacterial, cytotoxic and genotoxic activity, it presented activity as monotherapy only in the volume of 24μL (50mg/ mL) and synergistic activity with bacterial cell wall inhibitory antibiotics (amoxicillin and ampicillin/ sulbactan) and hydrogen peroxide indicating its mechanism of action interaction with a cell membrane of Escherichia coli and be a special agent in cases of resistance to these antibiotics, presented by these bacterial.

Keywords: Aqueous Extract. Antimicrobial Activity. Hibiscus sabdariffa l.


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