Abstract
SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF EMPIRICAL THERAPY FOR UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AT PIGG’S PEAK GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL

Siphesihle C. Mhlanga, Alemayehu L. Duga*, Admire T. Makunde, Sifundo Zwane and Sebenta Menon

ABSTRACT

Background: The utilization of empirical antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) has the potential of affecting the susceptibility of URTIs. Methods: A quantitative prospective cohort study was done from 4th until the 23rd of July 2017 at the Pigg’s Peak Government Hospital Out Patient Department where bacteria samples were collected from 33 patients with URTIs. Amongst the bacteria that were obtained 28 samples produced the most prevalent of pathogenic bacteria klebsiella pneumoniae and they were tested for susceptibility amongst four antimicrobials including ampicillin, penicillin-G, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole. The zones of inhibition produced by the disks were used to generate results for the susceptibility tests and were analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences software version 20. Results: Amongst the four antibiotics that were tested ampicillin was 25.0% susceptible, 32.1% intermediate susceptible and 42.9% resistant. Penicillin G was 10.7% susceptible, 17.9% susceptible and 71.4% resistant. Erythromycin was 46.4% susceptible, 21.4% intermediate susceptible and 32.1% resistant. Lastly, co-trimoxazole was 75.0% susceptible, 14.5% intermediate susceptible and 10.7% resistant. Conclusions: This study has shown that Klebsiella pneumoniae has shown some resistance to erythromycin, Pennicilin G and ampicillin respectively. On the other hand, this bacterium showed to still be susceptible to cotrimoxazole. Recommendations are made to the hospital that it undertakes more surveillance in monitoring susceptibility patterns of antimicrobials, substitution of more resistant antimicrobials and also following strict policies on prescribing antimicrobials.

Keywords: Empiric therapy, antimicrobial, upper respiratory infections, antimicrobial resistance.


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