Abstract
DYSPHAGIA CAUSES AND ITS RISK FACTORS IN MAK NIMER HOSPITAL NORTH OF SUDAN

Dr. Yousif Mohammed*

ABSTRACT

This prospective hospital-based study done in Shendi and Elmak Nimer University Hospitals during the period from 1-6-2006 to 31-12-2008. It includes 79 patients who had dysphagia, 15 cases (19%) who had neurological dysphagia and globus hystericus were excluded. The main objectives of the study are to study dysphagia as a common medical problem, to determine the common causes of dysphagia and to study the possible risk factors. The age of the patient in the study range between 2-85 years with increased incidence in the middle age females and elderly males. Two thirds of the patients in the study were females. Many associated problems were noticed in the patients complaining of dysphagia and they include repeated foreign-body impaction 12 (18.8%), repeated UGIT endoscopy in 9 (14%), history of blood transfusion 5 (7.8%), history of neck trauma 6 (9.4%), repeated hospital admission16 (25%) and history of chronic diseases 5 (7.8%).The assessment of the patients was done by taken history and performing general examination including E.N.T examination. Many investigations were done to the patients which included complete haemogram, plain radiography, Barium esophogram, endoscopy included both rigid and fibro-optic and biopsy were done in selected cases in the study. The most common causes of dysphagia in the study group were found to be, Plummer’s Vinson Syndrome 20 (31.3%) , Malignancy 16 (25%), esophagitis and stricture 11 (17.2%), Gastro esophageal reflux diseases 10 (15.6%) and others rare causes 7 (10.9%) were noticed like hiatus hernia, Oropharyngeal candidiasis, laryngeal carcinoma and post chemotherapy to the head and neck tumor and post-thyroidectomy. There is significant correlation between the diagnosis and age of the patients and level of hemoglobin and result of biopsy (Pvalue: 0.05, 0.05 and 0.000) respectively. Although there is no significant correlation between diagnosis and sex, duration of the symptoms, course and progression of dysphagia, this may have been affected by the wide range of causes of dysphagia involved in the study. No risk factors mention clearly in the study group. Further studies on possible risk factors and dysphagia showed be done and putting standard protocol for the assessment and management of dysphagia is recommended.

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