Mohd Shabaz Khan*, Shubam Sehgal, Tanvay Jaithliya, Mohd Zubir, Manooj Kumar and Atul Tiwari


Diabetes mellitus is an endocrinological and/or metabolic disorder marked by elevated levels of sugar in the blood. It is a silent killer disease and affects millions of peoples in the world. It is a chronic disease caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by ineffectiveness of the insulin produced. High blood glucose levels are symptomatic of diabetes mellitus as a consequence of inadequate pancreatic insulin secretion or poor insulin-directed mobilization of glucose by target cells. It is the second leading cause of blindness and renal disease worldwide. Impaired insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance, the main pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes. The goal of diabetes treatment is to secure a quality of life (QOL) and lifespan comparable to those of healthy people, and a prerequisite for this is the prevention of onset and progression of vascular complications. This article focuses on the causes, types, factors affecting DM, incidences, preventive measures, treatment and future perspectives of the acute and chronic complications of diabetes directly associated with hypoglycemia and severe metabolic disturbances.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, endocrinology, insulin, hypoglycemia, metabolism.

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