Abstract
BIOGIGICAL SCREENING OF ANTIDIARRHOEAL PROPERTIES OF PSEUDOLACHNOSTYLIS MAPEOUNEIFOLIA PAX (EUPHORBIACEAE) STEM BAK

Cimanga Kanyanga R.*, Nsaka Lumpu S., Tshodi Ehata M., Makila Bool-Miting F., Kambu Kabangu O., Vlietinck A. J. and Pieters L.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was undertaken to report the antidiarrhoeal properties of aqueous extract of Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia (Kudu berry) stem bark and its soluble fractions in evaluating their effects on castor oil and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea in Wistar rats in vivo and gastrointestinal motility, as well as antibacterial, antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities. In castor oil and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea in animals, results indicated aqueous extract and its fractions significantly delayed diarrhoea onset, decrease the frequency of weight of wet and hard stool, intestinal volume of secreted fluid, defecation and diarrhoea in dose-dependent manner (oral doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight). In addition, significant reduction in the gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal test and intraluminal fluid accumulation in treated Wistar rats were also observed. Based on the antibacterial activity, aqueous extract and its fractions possessed antibacterial activity by inhibiting the growth of all tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 7.75 to 125 μg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentrations ranging from 15.62 to 250 μg/ml. These samples exhibited spasmolytic activity by inhibiting contractions of isolated guinea-pig ileum induced by acetylcholine and depolarizing solution rich in KCl by producing more than 60% inhibition of both agonist effects with the aqueous extract as the most active (> 80% inhibtion). With regard to the antiamoebic activity, aqueous extract and its fractions inhibited the growth of Entamoeba histolytica with minimal ameobicidal concentration (MAC) varying from 5.5 to 31.5 μg/ml and inhibitory concentrations 50 (IC50) ranging from 3.57 to11.24 μg/ml. These reported results showed that aqueous extract of P. maprouneifolia stem bark and its fractions are able to significantly reduce diarrhoea induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in animals, and exhibited antibacterial, spasmolytic and antiamoebic activities in vitro which in part, can support and justify its claimed antidiarroeal activity related to its traditional use to treat diarrhoea in traditional medicine in Democratic Republic of Congo and other African countries.

Keywords: Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia, stem bark, diarrhoea, antibacterial, spasmolytic and antiamoebic activity.


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