Abstract
IN VITRO AMOEBICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS AND THEIR FRACTIONS FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AS ANTIDIARRHEAL AGENTS IN KINSHASA-DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO AGAINST ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA

Cimanga K. R.*, Makila B. M. F., Kambu K. O., Tona L. G., Vlietinck A. J. and Pieters L.

ABSTRACT

40 aqueous extracts and 126 fractions obtained from the partition of these aqueous extracts were submitted to an assessment in vitro for their potential amoebicidal activity against Entamoeba histolytica. Results revealed the presence of five aqueous extracts and their respective soluble fractions exhibiting pronounced amoebicidal activity with minimal amoebicidal concentrations (MAC) and inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) < 10 μg/ml. They included aqueous extracts from Carica papaya ripe seeds, Morinda morindoides leaves, Paropsia brazzeana root, Psidium guajava stem bark and Mangifera indica stem bark. Seventheen aqueous extracts from Alcornea latifolia root bark, Carica papaya unripe seeds, Bridelia feruginea, Dialium engleriaum stem bark, and Dracena reflexa, Sida rhombifolia and Tithonia diversifolia leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole, Heinsia pulchella root bark, Harungana madagacasriensis, Hymenocardia acida stem bark, Jatropha curcas, Maprounea africana, Morinda lucida, Psidium guyava leaves, Quassia africana and Rauwolfia obscura root bak and their respective soluble fractions exhibited good amoebicidal activity with MAC and IC50 < 100 μg/ml. A moderate amoebicidal activity was also found in six aqueous extracts form Alcornea cordifolia and Datura arborea leaves, Cassia siamea, Ceiba pentandra and Garcinia kola stem bark, and Nauclea latifolia root bark while their respective fractions exhibited the same level of activity with MAC and IC50 < 100 μg/ml. One aqueous extract from Pentaclethra macrophylla and its fractions showed weak amoebicidal activity with MAC and IC50 values of 250 and 162 μg/ml. Eleven aqueous extracts including Cajanus cajan leaves and root bark, Cissius areloides, Myrianthus arborea, Nauclea latifola Justisia insularis, Ongokea gore, Phytolacca dodecandra, Pteridium aquilinum, Vitex maddiensis leaves and Costus afer fruit juice stem bark, were devoid with amoebicidal activity at the highest tested concentration of 500 μg/ml. These results demonstrate that these medicinal plants possess amoebicidal activity and can be used for the treatment of dysentery (amibiasis) and at some extents diarrhoea in traditional medicine.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, aqueous extract, diarrhoea, dysentery.


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