Abstract
EVALUATION OF RESPONSE OF IMMUNE PARAMETERS IN HIV SUBJECTS ON ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY IN PORT HARCOURT

Chinwe Rosemary Oparaodu, Confidence Kinikanwo Wachukwu and Easter Godwin Nwokah*

ABSTRACT

This cross sectional study was aimed at evaluating the response of immune parameters in HIV positive subjects on antiretroviral therapy in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of three hundred subjects were involved in this study out of which two hundred were HIV positive subjects and 100 were HIV negative apparently healthy subjects between 20 and 70 years of age who were attending clinic at Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital, Port Harcourt. Subjects who had diabetes, tuberculosis, severe malaria as well as pregnant women were excluded from this study. Blood samples were collected for the analysis of immune and haematological parameters. CD4 and CD3 counts were carried out using Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter Count automation (FACSCount). CD8 Counts was derived by the subtraction of CD3 values from CD4 values. Total lymphocyte counts and white blood cell counts were determined using automated haematology analyzer (Sysmex XP-300). The HIV subjects had significant low CD4 counts value of 341.73 ± 84.21 as against the control value of 902.52 ± 33.39 (p<0.0001); Total WBC counts of 4.97 ± 1.53 as against control value of 6.34 ± 1.73 (p<0.0001) and CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.316 ± 2.02 as against control value of 1.773 ± 0.35 (p<0.0001). Conversely, CD8 counts of 1082.05 ± 41.63 of HIV subjects were significantly higher than the control subjects of 509.09 ± 94.16 (p<0.0001). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference (p=0.669) in CD3 counts between the HIV infected (1366.05 ± 181.23) and the control subjects (1411.43 ± 179.52). Similarly, there was also no significant difference (p=0.031) between lymphocyte counts of HIV subjects (44.03 ± 16.05) and the control (34.48 ± 10.92) (p=0.031). Also, there were no significant differences between the parameters among the HIV subjects according to gender. The male CD3 levels were 1381.27 ± 198.82/ml while the female were 1354.41 ± 169.55/ml (p = 0.862), male CD4 levels were 290.92 ± 90.54/ml, while that of female were 380.59 ± 78.16/ml (p = 0.209), male CD8 levels were 1223.58 ± 54.12/ml while the female were 973.82 ± 55.74/ml (p = 0.061), TWBC for male were 5.07 ± 1.60 x 109/ml and that of the female were 4.89 ± 1.50 x 109/ml (p = 0.656) and Lymphocytes in male HIV subjects were 44.59 ± 18.28 x 109/ml while the levels for female HIV subjects were 43.60 ± 14.38 x 109/ml (p = 0.820). However, the mean CD4/CD8 of the male HIV subjects were 0.237±1.67 while the female HIV subjects were 0.391±1.40 (p=0.699) respectively. The results from this study indicate that there is incomplete immune reconstitution among HIV subjects on antiretroviral therapy. It is recommended that more studies be conducted on the factors that are responsible for this phenomenon in HIV subjects on antiretroviral therapy.

Keywords: HIV, Immune Response, ART.


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