Abstract
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS

*Ogoun T. R., Tobia P. S. and Ekiemoye S.

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at investigating the phytochemical and antibacterial characteristics of Garlic [Allium sativum] extract. 150g of fresh garlic bulbs were purchased from Ekowe market in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State was peeled and air dried for five days. Sample was blended and soaked in 200ml of distilled water for 6 hours in a sterile beaker. The crude extract was then filtered using sterile whatman’s filter paper. The filtered extract was then heated using heating mantle until water was loosed. After exhaustive extraction, the pure sample was subjected to phytochemical screening. 1.25g of sorbitol agar was weighed and dissolves in 31.25ml of distilled water. 1.968g of salmonella and shigella (SS) agar was dissolved in 31.25ml of distilled water while 3.46g of mannitol was also dissolved in 31.25ml of distilled water using standard procedure. The aqueous extract of Garlic was screened for the presence of the secondary metabolites using the procedure of Sofowora (1993). Two (2) milliliter of each extract was placed in a test tube for each of the tests and concentrated by evaporating the extract in a water bath. Tests were carried out for carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols. The result of the phytochemical screening of garlic plant showed the presence of carbohydrate (80mg/ml) brick red precipitate, tannins (1.1mg/ml), a stable foamy Solution called saponin (20mg/ml), an orange precipitate of alkaloid (0.9mg/ml), phenol (7.32mg/ml) and a pink scarlet coloured solution called flavonoid (6.5 mg/ml), as its chemical constituents. The antibacterial screening also indicates that garlic had the best antibacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella and Shigella species. Therefore, Garlic is recommended as a good antibacterial and antioxidant agent.

Keywords: Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antioxidant.


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