Abstract
SERUM CORTISOL AND CORTICOTROPIN LEVELS AMONG HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS IN KANO, NIGERIA

Yeldu M. H.*, Halliru H. A., Kumurya A. S., Abdulaziz A. M. and Yale B. M.

ABSTRACT

Hypertension remains the leading single cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a growing public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few studies have estimated serum cortisol and corticotrophin (ACTH) levels in a metropolitan city of Kano-Nigeria. A total of 300 adult participants consisting of 200 hypertensive patients and 100 apparently healthy individuals as control were recruited as the study subjects. Serum cortisol and ACTH were analysed using competitive ELISA method, electrolytes (Na+ and K+) by flame photometric method and plasma glucose by glucose oxidase method. The result showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in serum cortisol (22.16 ± 11.01μg/L) while, ACTH (9.07 ± 5.5 ng/L) and HDL-C (1.02 ± 0.23 mmol/L) significantly (p < 0.001; p=0.016) decrease in hypertensive patients compared to controls (1.94 ± 2.38 μg/L, 16.47 ± 12.8 ng/L and 1.09 ± 0.24 mmol/L respectively). There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in plasma glucose, TC, LDL-C and TG between hypertensive patients and controls. There was a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the levels of serum sodium (144.96 ± 9.62 mmol/L) and potassium (4.32 ± 0.70 mmol/L) in hypertensive patients compared to controls ( 136.27 ± 5.84 mmol/L and 3.86 ± 0.36 mmol/L respectively). Serum cortisol was negatively correlated with HDL-C (r = - 0.298; p = 0.001) and positively correlated with sodium (r = 0.175; p = 0.013). Cortisol was also found to be directly correlated with the rising hypertension (r = 0.294; p = 0.001). There is a need for routine evaluation of serum cortisol and ACTH for the management of hypertension.

Keywords: ACTH, Cortisol, Lipids, Hypertension, Kano, Nigeria.


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