Sanyam Nasa*, Mayank K. Dhawan, Smridhi Khurana and Meenakshi K. Chauhan, M.Pharm., Ph.D.


Great advances have been made on the development of Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) various categories of drugs. Additionally, the system is suitable for drugs having considerable first pass metabolism. Properties of an ideal transdermal drug includes its mass, polarity and degree of lipophilicity. The present review highlights the current status of the developments and the emerging trends of this topical route of delivery. The various generations of this system include lipophilic substances; chemical enhancers and iontophoresis; microneedles, thermal ablation and electroporation. There is a lot of potential in the use of ionic and larger molecules if the stratum corneum becomes easier to penetrate. Microemulsions which are constituted of surfactants, co-surfactants, etc. are used as a vehicle, ensures effective absorption and penetration through the skin. Topical Film Forming Systems are also useful; they provide a transparent film and have an emollient and protective action. Microneedles have marked action for delivery in ocular tissues. Microneedles, by enhancing the skin penetration cause modification in techniques by which formulations are delivered in ocular sites. Powder Injectors, Liquid Jet Injectors and thermal micro ablations also constitute the emerging trends in this aspect. Liquid Jet Injectors remove the use of needles, as a high-speed jet is used to deliver the drug by puncturing the skin. Powder Injectors also uses a needle free powdered device, mainly used for temperature sensitive materials.

Keywords: Stratum Corneum, Powdered Injectors, Liquid Jet Injectors.

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