Abstract
FOLIAR EPIDERMAL MICROSCOPY, PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTI-MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES AND STEM BARK OF ARTHOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS LAM. (FAMILY: MORACEAE) GROWN IN NIGERIA

Ezeunala M. N., *Ugbabe G. E., Ajoku G. A. and Ibekwe N.

ABSTRACT

The Foliar Epidermal Microscopy, Preliminary Phytochemical screening and Anti-microbial screening of the leaves and stem bark of Arthocarpus heterophyllus Lam. were carried out using standard methods. The leaf epidermal microscopy revealed numerous anomocytic stomata type on the lower epidermis while the upper layer had no stomata. The cell walls on the upper surface were wavier than on the lower surface and those of the lower surface had knobs. Trichomes were not observed on lower surface but had trichome base on the upper surface. The preliminary phytochemical screening on the leaf and stem bark revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes and anthraquinones and absence of tannins and phlobatanins in the leaves but present in small quantity in the stem bark. Antimicrobial screening carried out on 2.0mg/ml of the 70% methanol extract of the leaves and stem bark by cold maceration at room temperature (25 -30oC) for 24hrs were screened against standard strains of Salmonella paratyphi (ATCC 69150), Candida albicans (ATCC 22015) and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae from NIPRD clinic using agar dilution method. At the concentration of 2.0mg/ml, the stem bark extract exhibited anti-microbial activity against Salmonella typhi (ATCC 69150), Pseudomonas aureginosa, Candida albicans (ATCC 22015) and Escherichia coli while the leaf extract had no activity against all the test micro-organisms. Amoxicillin, which was used as standard, inhibited the growth of all the test micro-organisms at the same concentration. The results from the study provide finger print for the identification and anti-microbial activities of the 70% methanol extracts of the leaves and stem bark of Arthocarpus heterophyllus.

Keywords: Microscopy, Phytochemical screening, Anti-microbial, Micro-organisms and Stomata.


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